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          2015年考研英語一真題及答案

          來源:中公考研網 | 2017-04-12 15:14:43

            對于考研的同學來說,英語復習是一件令人頭疼的事,為了幫助大家順利的通過考試,中公考研小編為大家整理了2015年考研英語一真題及答案的相關信息,希望對大家的復習有所幫助。

            Section I Use of English

            Directions:

            Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

            Though not biologically related, friends are as “related” as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_.

            The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_.

            While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, “Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.”

            The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_”functional Kinship” of being friends with_(14)_!

            One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor.

            The findings do not simply explain people’s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

            1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what

            【答案】[D] what

            【解析】該題考查的是語法知識。根據句子結構和選項的特點,可以判斷出空格處應填從屬連詞引導從句;再根據句子的內容,可以看出該從句是一項研究的相關內容(what),不是指研究的時間(when), 原因(why)和方式(how),因此,該題的答案為what。

            2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised

            【答案】[B] concluded

            【解析】從此題所在的句子的前后內容可以判斷出,that is_______ 中的that是指第一句話的內容(朋友與我們基因上的相關性),很顯然是研究得出的結論。因此,答案為concluded。

            3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by

            【答案】[C] on

            【解析】根據空格所在句子的內容(研究對1932分獨特的受試者進行分析)判斷出進行分析的對象是1932 unique subjects。conduct analysis on…是固定表達。

            4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected

            【答案】[A] compared

            【解析】該空格所在的句子是which 引導的定語從句修飾study,意思是:對幾對基因不相關的朋友和陌生人進行_______。因為“研究”的內容是關于朋友間基因上的相關性問題,所以完整的意思應該是:對幾對基因不相關的朋友和陌生人進行比較。所以最佳答案為compared。

            5. [A] tests [B] objects [C]samples [D] examples

            【答案】[C] samples

            【解析】根據空格的前后內容判斷,到第五個空為止,文章都在講實驗過程,和實驗對象,第五個空格所在句子的內容是:相同的人們都用于實驗中的這兩類______。所以根據上下文語境和內容,應該選與實驗對象相對應的samples(樣例).因此,答案是samples。

            6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible

            【答案】[A] insignificant

            【解析】空的語境為:盡管這1%看起來似乎____,但是遺傳學家可不這么認為。空前后形成對比轉折的邏輯關系,而從后文列舉的例子中可知遺傳學家James Fowler對這1%基因的態度是肯定的,故答案為A。

            7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know

            【答案】[D] know

            【解析】空的語境為:大多數人甚至不____他們隔三代的表親,但卻設法選擇那些____我們親戚的人作為朋友。填入的詞必須滿足前后句之間的轉折邏輯關系,四個選項帶入,只有D選項符合上下文語義。

            8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass

            【答案】[A] resemble

            【解析】空的語境為:大多數人甚至不認識他們隔三代的表親,但卻設法選擇那些____我們親戚的人作為朋友。根據全文中心:基因上的相似性,可知本題選擇A。

            9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

            【答案】[B] also

            【解析】空所在的句子開頭用“The study…”,顯然這是對上文話題的繼續闡述,前文指出研究發現朋友與我們有1%的基因關系,而空所在句“the genes for smell were something shared in friends”在進一步詳細討論該話題,前后之間是順接關系,故答案為B。

            10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps

            【答案】[D] Perhaps

            【解析】從選項和文字中句子結構可以判斷,空格處要求填入一個能夠體現前后兩個句子邏輯關系的副詞,空前的句子談到“為什么在嗅覺基因方面存在相似性還很難解釋”,空后卻緊接著對此得出一個相關結論,很明顯是矛盾的,所以此結論只能是一種不確定的推測,故答案為D。

            11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like

            【答案】[B] to

            【解析】該題為介詞選擇題。后半句出現比較級,可見是和前文形成比較關系,因此和上半句介詞保持一致,用介詞to。該句翻譯:它(這種相似性)吸引我們到相同的環境,并且使我們更為相似。因此答案為to。

            12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit

            【答案】[A] drive

            【解析】該句意思為:很多機制共同作用,從而_____我們選擇基因相似的朋友,_____和_____交朋友的“功能關系”。根據上下文可知,此處所填入動詞需符合結構_____sb. in doing sth,B選項observe(觀察,遵守)和C選項confuse(困惑)均無此用法。符合該結構只有A選項drive(驅使)和D選項limit(限制)。根據上下文可得知:這些機制驅使我們選擇基因相似的朋友,符合文章主題。如果選限制則為反向干擾。因此答案為drive。

            13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with

            【答案】[B] rather than

            【解析】所填詞為邏輯關系短語,空前說選擇基因相似的朋友,空后說具有“實用關系”的朋友,可知前后為對立關系,并且根據文章主題,可知肯定前者而否定后者,可鎖定B選項rather than。A選項according to(根據)沒有體現出對立及取舍關系,因此排除;C選項regardless of(不管)表讓步關系,干擾性較強,但文章更強調取前舍后,因此排除;D選項along with(伴隨)表順接,故排除。故答案為rather than。

            14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits

            【答案】[D] benefits

            【解析】根據前文functional kinship(實用關系)可得出D選項benefits(利益),前后形成呼應。A選項chances(機會)、B選項responses(反應)、C選項missions(使命)均不符合題意。故答案為benefits。

            15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier

            【答案】[C] faster

            【解析】該句為:evolving ______ than other genes(比其他基因進化得______). 根據同詞復現,我們找到該段第二句話中:human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years(人類進化在過去30000年間提速)。C 選項faster與下文picked pace(加速)形成呼應,故答案為faster。

            16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express

            【答案】[C] understand

            【解析】此題考查動詞。根據語意。空格后面是一個why引導的賓語從句,意為“人類進化在過去三萬年間得以加速的原因”,表示這一研究的結果和意義。能與這一賓語從句構成搭配的只有C選項understand。A選項forecast“預測”與“過去三萬年”相矛盾,B選項remember“記住”和D選項“express”均不符合文意。

            17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive

            【答案】[B] contributory

            【解析】此空需要填入一個形容詞,表達社會環境對人類進步所起到的作用。help,pick pace這兩個詞表達的都是積極的含義,因此此處需要填入一個帶有褒義的感情色彩的詞, 因此排除A選項“不可預測的”和D選項“破壞性的”; B 而C選項“可控的”,與語意無關;因此正確答案為B選項contributory“促進的”。

            18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency

            【答案】[D] tendency

            【解析】此處進一步陳述這一研究的結論。A選項endeavor“努力”,B選項“決定”,C選項“安排”,D選項“傾向”。本文的主旨重在解釋人們在交朋友的不自覺的一種傾向,而非通過人為的有意識的舉動來選擇朋友。因此正確答案為D。

            19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic

            【答案】[C] ethnic

            【解析】結合文意,人們普遍希望和有相似基因背景的人。C選項ethnic意為“種族的,民族的”,是對上文中多次重復出現的genes,以及下文的the same population的同義復現。因此正確答案為C。 A選項political“政治的”, B選項“宗教的”,D選項“經濟的”均不符合原文文意。

            20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell

            【答案】[A] see

            【解析】此處考察動詞,動詞勢必要看前后搭配。see that 構成固定詞組,意為“務必使……”,符合文意,即:即使所有的受訪者都擁有歐洲血統,(研究者們)仍然悉心確保所有的受訪者、朋友和陌生人都來自于同一群種。選項B“展示”,選項C“證明”,選項D“辨別”均無此含義,且不符合文意。

            Section II Reading Comprehension

             Part A

            Directions:

            Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

            Text 1

            King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don’t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.” But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?

            The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.

            It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs’ continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

            Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today – embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

            The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

            While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

            It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

            21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

            [A] used turn enjoy high public support

            [B] was unpopular among European royals

            [C] cased his relationship with his rivals

            [D]ended his reign in embarrassment

            【答案】[D] ended his reign in embarrassment

            【解析】事實細節題。根據題干要求,定位到文章前兩段。而文章第一段的第二句話提到“But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down.”(在最近的歐洲選舉中,令人尷尬的丑聞和受歡迎的共和黨,均迫使Carlos收回前言并退位)。D選項中,“stand down”是“end reign”的同義置換,且“embarrassment”與導致Carlos卸任的原因“embarrassing scandals”是相呼應的。故D是正確答案。A、B、C均屬于無中生有。

            22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly

            [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

            [B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

            [C] to give voter more public figures to look up to

            [D]due to their everlasting political embodiment

            【答案】[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

            【解析】事實細節題。根據題干關鍵詞“monarchs”和“heads of state”,定位到第三段的最后一句話“...most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.”(大多數的王室幸存下來是由于他們讓選民可以避免去尋找一個不受爭議且受尊敬的公眾人物的困難)其中“non-controversial but respected public figure”正是A選項中“undoubted and respectable status”的同義置換。故A是正確答案。

            23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

            [A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth

            [B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

            [C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families

            [D]The nobility’s adherence to their privileges

            【答案】[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

            【解析】事實細節題。定位在第四段的最后一句話“...it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.”(離奇的是,富有的貴族竟然仍是現代民主國家的象征核心)其中,the symbolic heart of modern democratic states是題干the role of the nobility in modern democracies的同義置換。

            24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

            [A] takes a rough line on political issues

            [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised

            [C] takes republicans as his potential allies

            [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

            【答案】[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

            【解析】事實細節題。該題考查:英國皇家貴族們非常害怕是因為查爾斯……。根據題干專有名詞Charles可定位到文章第七段“the danger will come with Charles...worst enemies”。本段指出“危險源自于查爾斯,他生活奢靡,等級觀念顯著;并且他沒有意識到君王的幸存很大程度上取決于君王提供了公共服務,同時,查爾斯并不知道,國王才是君主制度最大的敵人,而非共和黨人。”選項A意為:對待政治問題態度強硬,文章并無提及;選項B意為,對待建議的生活方式改變失敗,文章中提到生活方式,但并未提到改變生活方式;選項C意為:視共和黨人為潛在盟友,文章中提到,共和黨人并非最大的敵人,并未指明把共和黨人視為盟友,屬于偷換概念,選項D意為:適應未來身份失敗,文章指出查爾斯的生活方式,世界觀以及他對于君王制度的錯誤理解均為身份特殊的他的不正確言行,與選項D表述吻合,故為正確答案。

            25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

            [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

            [B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

            [C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

            [D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

            【答案】[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

            【解析】主旨大意題。該題考察四個選項中哪個可作為文章最佳標題。文章從西班牙國王Carlos退位事件切入,主要討論當下歐洲君王制度所存在的問題,并非討論查爾斯的事件,即可排除選項B“查爾斯—繼位焦慮”和D“查爾斯—應對威脅緩慢”,而選項A“卡洛斯—榮辱并存” 和C“卡洛斯—歐洲君王們的前車之鑒”中,選項A屬于細節信息,不能概括文章大意,選項C可概括,故為正確答案。另外,文章主題詞Monarch只有在選項C中出現,也可作為迅速解題的依據。

            Text 2

            Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

            California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling particularly one that upsets the old assumption that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

            The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justices can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

            They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smart phone — a vast storehouse of digital information — is similar to, say, rifling through a suspect’s purse. The court has ruled that police don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when they sift through the wallet or pocketbook of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smart phone is more like entering his or her home. A smart phone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

            Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy. But keeping sensitive information on these devices is increasingly a requirement of normal life. Citizens still have a right to expect private documents to remain private and protected by the Constitution’s prohibition on unreasonable searches.

            As so often is the case, stating that principle doesn’t ease the challenge of line-drawing. In many cases, it would not be overly onerous for authorities to obtain a warrant to search through phone contents. They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe, urgent circumstances, and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is pending. The court, though, may want to allow room for police to cite situations where they are entitled to more freedom.

            But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a virtual necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

            26. The Supreme Court will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

            [A] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

            [B] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant.

            [C] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized.

            [D]prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

            【答案】[C] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized

            【解析】這是一道事實細節題,根據題干關鍵詞The Supreme Court回文定位到第一段的第二句話,“The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search for the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest”,一一比對選項,原文中的“police can search for the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant”與選項C “check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized”是同義替換,其他選項均是無關選項。

            27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

            [A] disapproval.

            [B] indifference.

            [C] tolerance.

            [D]cautiousness.

            【答案】[A] disapproval

            【解析】本題是觀點態度題,考察作者的態度。根據題干關鍵詞“California’s argument”,可以定位到文章第四段第一句“They should start by discarding California’s lame argument…”。由第四段第一句話中的“discard(拋棄)”和“lame(沒有說服力的)”可以看出作者對于California’s argument 是不支持的態度,因此選A。

            28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone contents is comparable to

            [A] getting one’s residence.

            [B] handling one’s historical records.

            [C] scanning one’s correspondences.

            [D] going through one’s wallet.

            【答案】[A] getting one’s residence

            【解析】根據題干關鍵詞the author believes和“exploring one’s phone contents is comparable to”可回文定位到文章第四段第三句“But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home”,選項A語義與之一致,其中,getting 與entering對應,one’s residence與his or her home對應,故A選項為正確答案。

            29. The author believes that exploring one’s phone contents is comparable to

            [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

            [B] the court is giving police less room for action.

            [C] citizens’ privacy is not effectively protected.

            [D] phones are used to store sensitive information.

            【答案】[C] citizens’ privacy is not effectively protected

            【解析】根據題干信息In paragraphs 5and 6定位第5段第一句話“Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy.及第6段最后一句話,...and they could take reasonable measures to.....,可推知作者的顧慮,因此答案為C.

            30. Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

            [A] the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

            [B] new technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

            [C]California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.

            [D]principles of the Constitution should never be altered

            【答案】[A] the Constitution should be implemented flexibly

            【解析】這是一道例證題,根據題干關鍵詞Orin Kerr可以回文定位到文章最后一段。作者引用Orin Kerr這個人的比較是為了說明相關的論點。分析最后一段結構可知,最后一段的第三句和第四句都是在闡述該例子本身,所以相關論點應該往前面找,即是第二句話,“New,disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protection”,選項A與之同義替換,其中,be implemented和applications對應,novel和flexibly對應。

            Text 3

            The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings.

            “Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,” writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors(SBoRE). Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal’s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts.

            Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: “The creation of the ‘statistics board’ was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science’s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.”

            Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group. He says he expects the board to “play primarily an advisory role.” He agreed to join because he “found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science.”

            John Ioannidis, a physician who studies research methodology, says that the policy is “a most welcome step forward” and “long overdue.” “Most journals are weak in statistical review, and this damages the quality of what they publish. I think that, for the majority of scientific papers nowadays, statistical review is more essential than expert review,” he says. But he noted that biomedical journals such as Annals of Internal Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association and The Lancet pay strong attention to statistical review.

            Professional scientists are expected to know how to analyze data, but statistical errors are alarmingly common in published research, according to David Vaux, a cell biologist. Researchers should improve their standards, he wrote in 2012, but journals should also take a tougher line, “engaging reviewers who are statistically literate and editors who can verify the process”. Vaux says that Science’s idea to pass some papers to statisticians “has some merit, but a weakness is that it relies on the board of reviewing editors to identify ‘the papers that need scrutiny’ in the first place”.

            31. It can be learned from Paragraph 1 that

            [A] Science intends to simplify their peer-review process.

            [B] journals are strengthening their statistical checks.

            [C] few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis.

            [D] lack of data analysis is common in research projects.

            【答案】[B] journals are strengthening their statistical checks

            【解析】推理題。根據題干直接定位到第一段。解題關鍵在于第二句The policy follows similar efforts from other journals(該政策得到其他期刊類似的努力)the policy指第一句The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, (《科學》雜志把統計檢查額外添加到它的同行評審過程中),由此可直接推斷出正確答案為[B] journals are strengthening their statistical checks (各大期刊正在加強統計數字檢查)。選項[A]中simplify與原文語意不符,所以選項C、D屬于無中生有。

            32. The phrase “flagged up” (Para. 2) is the closest in meaning to

            [A] found.

            [B] marked.

            [C] revised.

            [D] stored.

            【答案】[C] marked

            【解析】詞義題。根據題干定位回第二段第三句Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal’s internal editors, (雜志內部編輯將通過更多的審查來標記手稿)。文中運用代入法,把各選項代入句中替換,可知選項C marked(標記)為正確答案。選項A found(發現,找到),選項B revised(修改),選項 D stored(存儲)。

            33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may

            [A] pose a threat to all its peers.

            [B] meet with strong opposition.

            [C] increase Science’s circulation.

            [D]set an example for other journals.

            【答案】[D] set an example for other journals

            【解析】細節題。根據題干關鍵詞Giovanni Parmigiani,the establishment of the SBoRE和may定位到第四段的最后一句“… but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science。選項中的example是model的同義替換,others journals是原文中a larger group of publishing places的同義替換。

            文章中出現了hopefully,表示作者積極的態度。選項A中的threat,選項B中的opposition分別表達負向消極的態度,所以錯誤。選項C increase Science’s circulation(增加《科學》雜志的發行量),文章并未提到,屬于無中生有。

            34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now

            [A] adds to researchers’ workload.

            [B] diminishes the role of reviewers.

            [C] has room for further improvement.

            [D]is to fail in the foreseeable future

            【答案】[C] has room for further improvement

            【解析】細節題。由題干關鍵詞David Vaux和Science,可定位到第六段最后一句。Vaux says that Science’s idea to pass some papers to statisticians “has some merit, but a weakness is that it relies on the board of reviewing editors to identify ‘the papers that need scrutiny’ in the first place”. (《科學》雜志把論文推給統計員審核有一些優點,但缺點是它依賴于審稿編委會首先需要確定審查的文件。)

            選項A中workload,選項B. diminish the role of reviewers和選項D中的foreseeable future沒有提到,屬于無中生有。

            35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

            [A] Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers.

            [B] Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect

            [C] Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors’ Desks

            [D] Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science

            【答案】A science joins push to screen statistics in papers

            【解析】文章第一段由Science將增加statistical checks引出話題,接下來各段就此問題McNutt, Giovanni Parmigianni, John Ioannidis, David Vaux提出各自的看法。文中statistical,papers反復提及,可知該詞是文中核心詞。選項B和選項D首先排除,偏離主題,statisticians僅在文中提及,非重點討論內容;選項C與文中主題相差較大,因此排除。

             Text 4

            Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch’s daughter ,Elisabeth ,spoke of the “unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions” Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism ”in society should be profit and the market .But “it’s us ,human beings ,we the people who create the society we want ,not profit ”.

            Driving her point home, she continued: “It’s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous foals for capitalism and freedom.” This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International ,shield thought ,making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking .

            As the hacking trial concludes – finding guilty ones-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones ,and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge –the winder issue of dearth of integrity still standstill, Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people .This is hacking on an industrial scale ,as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This long story still unfolds.

            In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place .One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, wow little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired wow the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing.

            In today’s world, title has become normal that well—paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business–friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.

            The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers.

            36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by

            [A] the consequences of the current sorting mechanism

            [B] companies’ financial loss due to immoral practices.

            [C] governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues.

            [D]the wide misuse of integrity among institutions.

            【答案】[A] the consequences of the current sorting mechanism

            【解析】通過題干可以將此題鎖定在前兩段。第一段指出Elisabeth談到了“我們很多機構都面臨著令人沮喪的正直感的喪失”。接下來第二句指出這種正直感的喪失是因為大家普遍認為社會中唯一的分類機制(sorting mechanism)應該是利益和市場。而從第一段最后一句我們看出,她認為“應該是我們人類自己創造我們想要的社會,而不應該是利益”。可見,Elisabeth很不認可目前的這種分類機制(sorting mechanism)以及所造成的不良后果,這也正是她感到沮喪的原因。故A選項consequence of the current sorting mechanism(目前這種分類機制的后果)是真正讓她沮喪的原因。

            37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that

            [A] Glem Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime

            [B] more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking.

            [C] Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge.

            [D] phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions.

            【答案】[B] more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking

            【解析】第三段第一句指出,Andy Coulson因為參與手機黑客案件被裁定有罪,然而他的前任卻被認定是無罪的。通過這一事件,作者得出由此造成的道德淪喪廣泛問題依然存在(the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands)。即仍然存在一些人沒有被裁定有罪。接著文章指出了在新聞業中,已經有記者被認定非法侵入用戶手機。而還有一些在等待審判(others await trial),由此可以推出,將會有更多的記者因為涉及手機黑客案件而被裁定有罪。故正確答案為選項B。

            38. The author believes the Rebekah Books’s deference

            [A] revealed a cunning personality

            [B] centered on trivial issues

            [C] was hardly convincing

            [D] was part of a conspiracy

            【答案】[C] was hardly convincing

            【解析】根據題干中的“defence”可以回文定位到文章第四段最后一句話。該句指出Ms. Brooks辯護成功的關鍵在于她對這個事件一無所知(she knew nothing)。而作者在該段第一句話中指出,道德喪失不僅體現在普遍存在的手機黑客這一事實上,更體現在一些審判案件所使用的條款上,其中最震驚的就是對Ms. Brooks的審判。可見,作者對該案的審判持否定態度。因此,認為她的辯護是不可信的。故正確答案為C。

            39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows

            [A] generally distorted values

            [B] unfair wealth distribution

            [C] a marginalized lifestyle

            [D] a rigid moral cote

            【答案】[A] (generally distorted values)

            【解析】通過題干中的“collective doctrine”可以直接定位到文中第五段第三行。該句指出“collective doctrine”是社會的分類機制應該是利益。接下來可以看出,那些真正起作用的是那些表示利益的詞“efficiency,flexibility,shareholder value,business-friendly,wealth generation…”,而表示公平、正義的詞(Justice,fairness,tolerance…)則被置于邊緣。可見,這種教義(collective doctrine)只關注利益,而忽略了公平與正義,這顯然是一種扭曲的價值觀。故A選項正確。

            40. Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph?

            [A] The quality of writing is of primary importance.

            [B] Common humanity is central news reporting.

            [C] Moral awareness matters in exciting a newspaper.

            [D] Journalists need stricter industrial regulations.

            【答案】[C] moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper

            【解析】這是一道開放式推理題。作者在最后一段前兩句話指出,新聞報道的目的不是為了促進讀者的理解,也不是為了追求公平或者違背人類共有的人性,而是通過追求發行量的影響率來破壞人們的生活。即文章從一開始指出的一個問題,為了追求利益而造成了正值感的喪失。從“ruin”一詞可以看出,作者對新聞記者的這一行為持否定的態度。并且通過Ms. Brooks女士的行為加以佐證。作者通過正話反說的方式,突出新聞報道過程中正值感的重要性。故正確答案為C,moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper(在新聞報道中,道德意識很重要),其中moral awareness和integrity是同義互換。

             Part B

            Directions:

            In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the fist A-G to fit each of the numbered blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

            How does your reading proceed? Clearly you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them, drawing on your explicit knowledge of English grammar (41) ______you begin to infer a context for the text, for instance, by making decisions about what kind of speech event is involved: who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where.

            The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of of comprehension. But they show comprehension to consist not just passive assimilation but of active engagement inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and cues (42) _______

            Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or “true” meaning that can be read off and clocked for accuracy, or some timeless relation of the text to the world. (43) _______

            Such background material inevitably reflects who we are, (44) _______This doesn’t, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods, places and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page-including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns-debates about texts can play an important role in social discussion of beliefs and values.

            How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it. (45)_______such dimensions of read suggest-as others introduced later in the book will also do-that we bring an implicit (often unacknowledged) agenda to any act of reading. It doesn’t then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different kinds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy or relationship to your surrounding textual environment.

            [A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfils the requirement of a given course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room.

            [B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretation but at the same time obscure or even close off others.

            [C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the contest. On the assumption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them.

            [D]In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones the author intended.

            [E]You make further inferences, for instance, about how the test may be significant to you, or about its validity—inferences that form the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible.

            [F]In plays,novels and narrative poems, characters speak as constructs created by the author, not necessarily as mouthpieces for the author’s own thoughts.

            [G]Rather, we ascribe meanings to test on the basis of interaction between what we might call textual and contextual material: between kinds of organization or patterning we perceive in a text’s formal structures (so especially its language structures) and various kinds of background, social knowledge, belief and attitude that we bring to the text.

            41【答案】[C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms...

            【解析】從首段疑問句可以看出文章主題圍繞如何閱讀來進行展開。41題空在段中間,需要看空處的前一句和后一句,前一句說的是要去理解單詞的含義,并關注句法,而后一句說開始推測文章語境。所以可以推測出41題空處應該說的是單詞語義和語境之間的聯系,關鍵詞就是words和context。縱覽選項,只有C項符合語境和關鍵詞要求,屬同詞復現,上下文語義邏輯關聯。故正確答案選C。

            42【答案】[E] You make further inferences, for instance...

            【解析】該題空在段末,需要看空處的前一句和下一段首句,前一句說的是我們通過作者給出的一些具體線索來理解含義,而下一段首句說通過這種方式表達,每個人的理解都會有所不同。所以可以推測出42空處內容要有關根據作者給的線索推測信息,而且可能會涉及不同的人有不同的理解,關鍵詞是infer, the writer和each reader。縱覽選項,只有E項符合語境且出現inferences, the author, personal,屬同義詞復現。故正確答案選E。

            43【答案】[G] Rather, we ascribe meanings to texts on the basis...

            【解析】空格后出現明顯的指代線索詞such background material,所以空格內必定要出現相關的信息,瀏覽選項,G選項中textual and contextual material,background與空后線索實現代詞指代復現。而且G選項中的rather,與空前what is in question is not...實現語義邏輯關聯。確定此選項為正確答案。

            44【答案】[B] Factors such as the place and period in which...

            【解析】空前的線索詞為who we are,空后的線索為轉折邏輯關系,意思是“但這并不會使得理解僅僅有關聯或者毫無意義”,關鍵詞為interpretation,relative,pointless,空格中需要出現與此相關聯的詞匯,瀏覽后面選項,B選項中出現原詞interpretations,而且此選項中的gender, ethnicity, age, social class與空前線索詞who we are 相對應。確定正確答案為此選項。

            45【答案】[A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond...

            【解析】空格在最后一段的中間,線索需要從空格前后尋找,空前為概括的句子,關鍵詞為particular interest,空后出現代詞指代的線索,such dimensions of reading suggest,結合關鍵詞可以得知空格所填的部分內容需要涉及到“閱讀的興趣以及閱讀維度”,瀏覽選項,A選項提到的諸多問題正是有關讀書的興趣以及閱讀的維度。因此確定A為正確選項。

            Section III Translation

            Directions:

            Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

            Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration—one of the great folk wanderings of history—swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.

            47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world.

            48) But, the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American.

            49) The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th- and 16th-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on barely enough food allotted to them. Many of the ship were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes storms blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought unbearably long delay.

            “To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief.” said one recorder of events, “The air at twelve leagues’ distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden.” The colonists’ first glimpse of the new land was a sight of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a veritable real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.

            46【參考譯文】在多種強大的動機驅動下,這次(移民)運動在一片荒野上建立了一個國家,并且就本質而言,塑造了一個未知大陸的性格和命運。

            47【參考譯文】有兩股主要力量形成了美國:一是歐洲民族帶來的不同思想、風俗和民族特征,二是這個新國家在改變這些特征之后造成的影響。

            48【參考譯文】但是,美國特有的地理條件、不同種族間的相互影響、以及在這片蠻荒的新大陸上維持舊秩序的萬分艱難,帶來了巨大的變化。

            49【參考譯文】十五、十六世紀的探索發現了北美洲,又過了一百多年,第一艘滿載移民的航船跨過大西洋駛向這片土地,即現在的美國。

            50【參考譯文】原始森林樹木種類繁多,是一座真正的寶庫,從緬因州向南一直延伸至喬治亞州。

            Section IV Writing

             Part A

            51. Directions:

            You are going to host a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.

            You should state reasons for your recommendation.

            You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

            Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead.

            Do not write the address. (10 points)

            【參考范文】

            Dear Friends,

            I am writing to recommend to you a wonderful book, The Seventh Key, which is not only conductive to your study but also beneficial to your life.

            The book tells a story that two nephews of an old man try hard to find the seventh key first in order to win the legacy. It discloses the “money-first” attitude and heartlessness of people and tutors people about the life philosophy of “No pains, no gains”. What’s more, the beautiful language in this original English book may contribute to your study of English in listening, speaking, reading and writing.

            I hope you would enjoy the book and share your opinion on the next reading session.

            Yours sincerely,

            Li Ming

             Part B

            52. Directions:

            Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should

            1) describe the drawing briefly

            2) explain its intended meaning, and

            3) give your comments

            You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

            【參考范文】

            Unfolded in the elaborately painted cartoon is a thought-provoking scene: four youngsters are sitting together to have their gathering feast. However, much of their attention has been attached to their mobile cell phones, totally forgetting what they are gathering for. Just as is put in the caption of this cartoon, it is typically a“Dinner party in mobile era.”

            This picture is naturally associated with a wide-spreading phenomenon in contemporary society—too much addiction to the mobile phones. Indeed, we have all stepped an era of getting and staying in touch with others through telecommunication. Each of us seems close to another under this circumstance, but we have to look at the side-effect of the technology: the high-tech electronic products also cut off the face-to-face communication. To be specific, in our daily life, it’s not uncommon that on buses or subways, or walking on the road, we are all playing with phones or pads for recreation, such as reading novels, watching videos or movies, surfing the Internet, and so on, even though we travel with our friends, parents or loved one.

            Evidently, we should take a rational attitude towards this issue, but how? The media should promote the awareness of healthy lifestyle among the public, especially the young. Meanwhile, social activities, either in communities or on campuses, should be launched so that people can get back to the real world.

          【責任編輯:李碩】

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