<sub id="ufcsu"></sub>
    1. <small id="ufcsu"><dd id="ufcsu"><address id="ufcsu"></address></dd></small>

      1. <nav id="ufcsu"><dd id="ufcsu"><address id="ufcsu"></address></dd></nav>
           院校  專業 考研倒計時00

           400-6300-966

          首頁 報考指導 名校備考 復習指南 招生簡章 招生目錄 參考書目 歷年真題 分數線 報錄比 成功經驗
          您現在的位置: 首頁 > 歷年真題 > 正文

          2013年考研英語一真題及答案

          來源:中公考研網 | 2017-04-12 15:09:24

            對于考研的同學來說,英語復習是一件令人頭疼的事,為了幫助大家順利的通過考試,中公考研小編為大家整理了2013年考研英語一真題及答案的相關信息,希望對大家的復習有所幫助。

            2013年碩士研究生入學考試英語一試題

            Section I  Use of English

            Directions:

            Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

            People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that  1   the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by  2   factors. But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big  3   was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with.  4  , he theorised that a judge  5   of appearing too soft  6   crime might be more likely to send someone to prison  7   he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.

            To  8   this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process. In theory, the  9   of an applicant should not depend on the few others  10   randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr Simonsohn suspected the truth was  11   .

            He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews  12   by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had  13   applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale  14   numerous factors consideration. The scores were  15   used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the Graduate Management Admission Test, or GMAT, a standardised exam which is 16    out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.

            Dr Simonsonh found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one  17   that, then the score for the next applicant would  18   by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to  19   the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been  20   .

            1. [A] grants [B] submits [C] transmits [D] delivers

            2. [A] minor [B] objective [C] crucial [D] external

            3. [A] issue [B] vision [C] picture [D] moment

            4. [A] For example [B] On average [C] In principle [D] Above all

            5. [A] fond [B] fearful [C] capable [D] thoughtless

            6. [A] in [B] on [C] to [D] for

            7. [A] if [B] until [C] though [D] unless

            8. [A] promote [B] emphasize [C] share [D] test

            9. [A] decision [B] quality [C] status [D] success

            10. [A] chosen [B] studied [C] found [D] identified

            11. [A] exceptional [B] defensible [C] replaceable [D] otherwise

            12. [A] inspired [B] expressed [C] conducted [D] secured

            13. [A] assigned [B] rated [C] matched [D] arranged

            14. [A] put [B] got [C] gave [D] took

            15. [A] instead [B] then [C] ever [D] rather

            16. [A] selected [B] passed [C] marked [D] introduced

            17. [A] before [B] after [C] above [D] below

            18. [A] jump [B] float [C] drop [D] fluctuate

            19. [A] achieve [B] undo [C] maintain [D] disregard

            20. [A] promising [B] possible [C] necessary [D] helpful

            Section II   Reading Comprehension

            Part A

            Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

            Text 1

            In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scold her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her. Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to department stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.

            This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with feverish world described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decades or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent releases, and more profit. Those labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable——meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that——and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.

            The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-plus stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage, overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.

            Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. “Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable, and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year——about 64 items per person——and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.

            Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes——and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can’t be knocked off.

            Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment——including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection Line——Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.

            21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her

            [A] poor bargaining skill.

            [B] insensitivity to fashion.

            [C] obsession with high fashion.

            [D] lack of imagination.

            22. According to Cline, mass-market labels urge consumers to

            [A] combat unnecessary waste.

            [B] shut out the feverish fashion world.

            [C] resist the influence of advertisements.

            [D] shop for their garments more frequently.

            23. The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to

            [A] accusation.

            [B] enthusiasm.

            [C] indifference.

            [D] tolerance.

            24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

            [A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.

            [B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability.

            [C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.

            [D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing.

            25. What is the subject of the text?

            [A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle.

            [B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth.

            [C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry.

            [D] Exposure of a mass-market secret.

            Text 2

            An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted—the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced. By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy.

            In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?

            In December 2010 America’s Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a “do not track” (DNT) option to internet browsers, so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed. Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Apple’s Safari both offer DNT; Google’s Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and the Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests.

            On May 31st Microsoft set off the row. It said that Internet Explorer 10, the version due to appear with windows 8, would have DNT as a default.

            Advertisers are horrified. Human nature being what it is, most people stick with default settings. Few switch DNT on now, but if tracking is off it will stay off. Bob Liodice, the chief executive of the Association of National Advertisers, says consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect information about their preferences. People will not get fewer ads, he says. “They’ll get less meaningful, less targeted ads.”

            It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.

            Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on advertising, it has chosen an indirect method: There is no guarantee that DNT by default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8—though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google’s on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft’s chief privacy officer, blogged: “We believe consumers should have more control.” Could it really be that simple?

            26. It is suggested in Paragraph 1 that “behavioural” ads help advertisers to

            [A] ease competition among themselves.

            [B] lower their operational costs.

            [C] avoid complaints from consumers.

            [D] provide better online services.

            27. “The industry” (Line 6, Para.3) refers to

            [A] online advertisers.

            [B] e-commerce conductors.

            [C] digital information analysis.

            [D] internet browser developers.

            28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default.

            [A] may cut the number of junk ads.

            [B] fails to affect the ad industry.

            [C] will not benefit consumers.

            [D] goes against human nature.

            29. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 6?

            [A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose.

            [B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT.

            [C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers.

            [D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads.

            30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of

            [A] indulgence.

            [B] understanding.

            [C] appreciation.

            [D] skepticism.

            Text 3

            Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely — though by no means uniformly — glowingly positive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all.

            Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to.

            But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years — so why shouldn’t we? Take a broader look at our species’ place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years. Look up Homo sapiens in the “Red List” of threatened species of the International for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN), and you will read: “Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline.”

            So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organisations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation has as its flagship project a mechanical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence.

            Perhaps willfully, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today’s technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it’s perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That’s one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future.

            But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves.

            This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come.

            31. Our vision of the future used to be inspired by

            [A] our desire for lives of fulfillment.

            [B] our faith in science and technology.

            [C] our awareness of potential risks.

            [D] our belief in equal opportunity.

            32. The IUCN’s “Red List” suggests that human beings are

            [A] a sustained species.

            [B] a threat to the environment.

            [C] the world’s dominant power.

            [D] a misplaced race.

            33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5?

            [A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies.

            [B] Technology offers solutions to social problem.

            [C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise.

            [D] Our immediate future is hard to conceive.

            34. To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to

            [A] explore our planet’s abundant resources.

            [B] adopt an optimistic view of the world.

            [C] draw on our experience from the past.

            [D] curb our ambition to reshape history.

            35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

            [A] Uncertainty about Our Future

            [B] Evolution of the Human Species

            [C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind

            [D] Science, Technology and Humanity

            Text 4

            On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona’s immigration law Monday—a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution, the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration’s effort to upset the balance of power between the federal government and the states.

            In Arizona v. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona’s controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to “establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization” and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial. Arizona had attempted to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones.

            Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court’s liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun. On the overturned provisions the majority held that Congress had deliberately “occupied the field,” and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal’s privileged powers.

            However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement. That’s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.

            Two of the three objecting Justice—Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas—agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts.

            The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as “a shocking assertion of federal executive power”. The White House argued that Arizona’s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter. In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with.

            Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status, it could. It never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn’t want to carry out Congress’s immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim.

            36. Three provisions of Arizona’s plan were overturned because they

            [A] deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers.

            [B] disturbed the power balance between different states.

            [C] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.

            [D] contradicted both the federal and state policies.

            37. On which of the following did the Justices agree, according to Paragraph 4?

            [A] Federal officers’ duty to withhold immigrants’information.

            [B] States’ independence from federal immigration law.

            [C] States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement.

            [D] Congress’s intervention in immigration enforcement.

            38.  It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts

            [A] violated the Constitution.

            [B] undermined the states’ interests.

            [C] supported the federal statute.

            [D] stood in favor of the states.

            39. The White House claims that its power of enforcement

            [A] outweighs that held by the states.

            [B] is dependent on the states’ support.

            [C] is established by federal statutes.

            [D] rarely goes against state laws.

            40.  What can be learned from the last paragraph?

            [A] Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress.

            [B] Justices intended to check the power of the Administration.

            [C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress.

            [D] The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.

            Part B

            Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

            The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000.

            Yet this enormous resource is not contributing enough to today’s global challenges including climate change, security, sustainable development and health.(41)        . Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger, from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers. Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.

            (42)        . This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction.

            Today, the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact. Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental change” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004. (43)       .

            When social scientists do tackle practical issues, their scope is often local: Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium, for example. And whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful.

            The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding. (44)          . This is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today’s economic climate.

            The trick is to direct these funds better. The European Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists. This year, it was proposed that system be changed: Horizon 2020, a new program to be enacted in 2014, would not have such a category. This has resulted in protests from social scientists. But the intention is not to neglect social science; rather, the complete opposite. (45)          . That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems.

            [A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social scientists: one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly specialized journals, and one that is problem-oriented and publishing elsewhere, such as policy briefs.

            [B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010, about 1,600 of the 100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these keywords.

            [C] The idea is to force social scientists to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change; food security; marine research and the bio-economy; clean, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.

            [D] The solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones.

            [E] These issues all have root causes in human behaviour: all require behavioural change and social innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy.

            [F] Despite these factors, many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems. And in Europe, some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development.

            [G] During the late 1990s, national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds — including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate — varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations, it is about 15%.

            Part C

            Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

            It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; 46) yet when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

            One of these urges has to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. 47) A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the former becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. 48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce form an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand.

            Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from, is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, 49) most of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call forth the spirit of plant and animal lift, if only symbolically, through a clumplike arrangement of materials, an introduction of colors, small pools of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. 50) It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see biophilia—a yearning for contact with nonhuman life—assuming uncanny representational forms.

            Section III   Writing

            P art A

            Directions:

            Write an e-mail of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college, inviting him/her to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest.

            You should include the details you think necessary.

            You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

            Do not sign your own name at the end of the e-mail. Use “Li Ming” instead.

            Do not write the address. (10 points)

            Part B

            Directions:

            Write an essay of 160~200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

            1) describe the drawing briefly,

            2) interpret its intended meaning, and

            3) give your comments.

            You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

            2013年全國碩士研究生入學統一考試

            英語一試題答案詳解

            Section Use of English

            1. [標準答案] [A]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義和固定搭配題。

            [選項分析]選項為四個動詞。grant意為“授予,給予,允許”等,常用結構為grant sth. (to sb.) 或者grant sb. sth;submit含有 “提交”之意,常用結構為submit sth. to sb./sth.,用于下級對上級;transmit 意為“傳輸,發射”;deliver意為 “傳遞”。空格位于首段第二句,是that引導的定語從句的謂語動詞。根據句意,該句順承首句“總體而言,人們自己做決定時,并不擅長考慮背景信息”而指出“乍一看,這是一種優勢,它……做判斷的能力”。很顯然,此處只有grant合適,既符合題意,也吻合結構,意為“它(這種優勢)賦予做判斷的一種能力”。其余各詞均不能與ability搭配,所以[A]是答案。

            2.[標準答案] [D]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義題。

            [選項分析] 四個選項意義截然不同。minor 意為“未成年的;次要的;較小的”等;objective意為“客觀的;目標的”等;crucial意為“重要的,決定性的”;external意為“外部的,外表的”。該空位于which 引導的定語從句中,修飾factors,定語從句的意思是“不受……因素而做的判決”。其中的unbiased意為“fair and not influenced by”。第一句話說“人們不擅長利用背景信息作決定”,第二句話代詞“this”指代第一句話,表述這種不善利用背景信息也可以是一種優勢(strength),所以可以推出:免遭背景信息的影響,從而作出公正的(unbiased)判決。根據上下文意思,此處的_2__factors顯然是background information的同義詞,所以只能選external。盡管其它詞語均可與factors搭配,但均與句意不符。所以[D]為答案。

            3.[標準答案] [C]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義和固定搭配題。

            [選項分析]根據句意“不考慮大的……會使決策者因其所處的日常背景環境而形成偏見”可知,inability to consider the big __3__與poor at considering background information意思相同,所以the big _3__為background information 的同義替換,只有picture的范圍和意義與此吻合。big picture 是一個固定搭配,表示“大局,事件的全貌”,“事件的全貌”也往往用whole picture,這里的big picture改寫了前面的background information和external factors。其它詞語與big 搭配,均沒有這層意思。[A]issue“問題”,[B]vision“想象”,[D] moment“時刻”。

            4.[標準答案] [A]

            [考點分析] 邏輯銜接題。

            [選項分析] 根據上下文的邏輯關系判斷,在提出一個觀點之后,接下來就是進行例證。選項中只有[A] 表示“例如”,符合這一邏輯關系,故選[A]。此外,2010年完型也考查了for example, 2009年完型考查了for instance,例證關系是歷年考研完型的重要考點。[B]表示“平均”;[C]為“大體上,原則上”;[D] 為“首先”,均不符合。

            5.[標準答案] [B]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義和詞匯辨析題。

            [選項分析] 四個選項均可與介詞 of 搭配。fond of表示“喜歡”,fearful of 表示“害怕,恐怕”,capable of 表示“能夠,具有……能力”,thoughtless of表示“考慮不周”。分析句子結構可知,_5__of appearing too soft 為judge 的定語。整句話的意思是“……顯得對犯罪太過心慈手軟的法官可能更傾向于判人入獄”,[A]和[D]顯然不對。而“顯得對犯罪太過心慈手軟”也不是某種能力,所以可排除[C] 。根據上下文意思,法官做出入獄判決,是因為“害怕”自己表現得對犯罪過于軟弱(too soft)。故選[B]。

            6.[標準答案] [B]

            [考點分析] 固定搭配題。

            [選項分析] soft on sb./sth.是固定搭配,表示“對某人/某事態度偏軟,不夠嚴厲”的意,故選[B]。 此外,根據介詞的本義和其后所接的crime(犯罪,犯罪行為),也可以判斷只能選on,其它均與句意不吻合。

            7.[標準答案] [A]

            [考點分析] 邏輯銜接題。

            [選項分析]if表示假設,“如果”;until 表示時間,“直到……”;though表示轉折,“然而”;unless表示讓步,“除非”。前半句意為“擔心對犯罪行為表現過分軟弱的法官可能更會判人入獄”,后半句意為“當天他已經判五到六人緩刑”。兩句話之間是明顯的假設關系,所以只有if符合題意,[A]為答案。本句的a judge對應前一句的decision-makers,緩刑判決案例對應前一句的the daily samples of information they were working with,本句論證前一句所提出的“biased”,表明法官沒關注案件本身,而依據先前的緩刑判決,從而不公正地做出入獄判決。

            8.[標準答案] [D]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞辨析題。

            [選項分析] promote意為“促進”;emphasize 意為“強調”,常與介詞on搭配;share 意為“分享”,常用于share sth. with sb.; test 意為“測試,驗證”。所選動詞的賓語為idea。根據上文中的speculated可知,該idea只是一種猜測,所以只能選test“驗證”。整句話的意思是,“他求助于大學招生程序來驗證這種觀點”。所以,[D]是答案。關于test用法,在2010年第三篇閱讀也出現過:“untested theory未經證實的觀點”。

            9.[標準答案] [D]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義和名詞辨析題。

            [選項分析] 本句提到的例子和第一段的例子如出一轍。根據第一段,法官若要判決某具體案件,為保持公正,就不應該考慮當天已經判決的案例。同理可得,本句表明的意思是,在權衡入學申請人的時候,也不應該受到同一天其他申請人的干擾。[A]“決定,抉擇”;[B] “質量”;[C ]status “身份”;[D] success “成功”。只有[D]帶入文中“申請人的……不應該取決于同一天隨機面試的其他幾名申請人”語義通順,所以答案是[D]。

            10.[標準答案] [A]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義題。

            [選項分析]結合本題選項和句子結構可知,空格處為過去分詞作others的后置定語,且被randomly修飾,randomly“隨意地,隨機地”暗示the few others是隨意“挑選的”,所以答案選[A]。[B]studied“被研究的”,[C]found“(努力尋找)而發現”和[D]identified“被鑒別出”都表示“刻意、努力為之”而得出結果的含義,randomly相矛盾,故均可排除。

            11.[標準答案] [D ]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義題。

            [選項分析]選項為四個形容詞。exceptional意為“例外的”;defensible意為“可防御的,可辯護的”;replaceable意為“可替換的”;otherwise意為“相反的”。根據but可知前后句間為轉折關系,即theory和the truth之間是不符的。四個詞中只有otherwise表示“相反的”,與句意吻合;其余的均不能表達but的強烈轉折意味。所以答案是D。

            12.[標準答案] [C ]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞辨析題。

            [選項分析]選項是四個動詞的過去分詞。inspired 意為“鼓舞的;授意的”;expressed意為 “表達的”; conducted 意為“引導的,指揮的,管理的”;secured 意為“保護的,擔保的”。根據句子結構,此處是動詞的過去分詞作后置定語,修飾interviews,且該工作的執行者是by后的31 admissions officers。由此可知,只能是“入學考試的官員們指導的面試”,所以選conducted。conduct 多與考試、面試等搭配,表示“進行面試或考試”。inspire“授意”,多指由較高級別的組織部門或人允許或要求較低級別的組織部門或人去做某件事情,顯然不符合此處語義;expressed和secured也與語義不符,故[C]為答案。

            13.[標準答案] [B]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析題。

            [選項分析]選項是四個動詞。 assign 表示“ 分配;指派”等;rate意為“ 認為;估價;劃分等級”等;match 意為“使比賽;匹配”等;arrange意為“  安排,整理”等。根據原文的on a scale of one to five(1至5五個等級)即可確定只能選rate,其他均無劃分級別的含義。整句話意為“面試官將申請者劃分為1至5五個等級”。所以正確答案是[B]。

            14.[標準答案] [D ]

            [考點分析] 固定搭配題。

            [選項分析]根據句子后面的 consideration即可確定選take,take consideration是固定搭配,意為“把……考慮在內”。其他三個選項均不能與 consideration搭配。

            15. [標準答案] [B ]

            [考點分析] 邏輯關系題。

            [選項分析]選項是四個副詞。instead表示“代替,反而”;then表示“然后”;ever表示“曾經,永遠”;rather表示“寧可,寧愿;反而”。本題所在句句子主干為The scores were 15 used to make a decision on whether to accept him or her,所填副詞表明本句與前文的邏輯關系。前面兩句說到,面試官把申請者劃分為5個等級,本句中The scores“分數”即指申請者獲得的等級。本句說得到的分數將和GMAT分數一起被用來決定其是否被錄取。從上下文的語義銜接看,本句與前文兩句之間只存在時間上的先后順序,而不存在轉折等其他關系,故答案為[B]。

            16. [標準答案] [C]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義和動詞辨析

            [選項分析] select表示“選擇”;pass表示“通過”;mark表示“標志,打分數”;introduce表示“介紹,引入”。分析句子結構,which 引導的定語從句修飾 exam,而且后面跟著800 points,很顯然與分數有關,可確定選[C]mark。該句的意思是,“GMAT是以800分計算的一種標準化測試”。pass之后一般接考試,而不是分數;其余兩個選項也均不能與分數搭配,均排除。

            17. [標準答案] [A]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義題。

            [選項分析]根據句子結構,句中出現三個比較對象,the previous candidate,the one_17__that(此處的that指代the previous candidate)和the next applicant。很明顯,the previous candidate是比較的基準,then后是其與the next applicant進行的比較,所以空格處只能是the previous candidate與其前的比較,答案選before。而且,根據句意,前一個申請者的得分只能是比他“之前”參加面試的人得分多,這樣才能有他之后的人與他形成對比。after“之后”顛倒原文的時間順序,應排除;above和below不表示時間順序,可直接排除。正確答案是[A]。

            18. [標準答案] [ B]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義

            [選項分析] 選項是四個動詞。jump意為“上升,暴漲”;float意為“漂浮”;drop意為“下降”;fluctuate意為“浮動”,多指圍繞某個標準而上下波動。該句話主要講分數的高低變化,所以只能是上升或下降,可首先排除float和fluctuate。根據后句話的結構可知,This指代an average of 0.075 points,后面又有such a decrease與this相呼應,即an average of 0.075 points是decrease的,所以只能選drop。整句話的意思是,“Simonsohn博士發現,在每天的一連串面試者當中,如果前一個應試者的分數比此前的面試者高出0.75個點或高出更多的話,那么下一個面試者的分數平均會下降0.075個點”。所以[B]是答案。

            19. [標準答案] [ B]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義題。

            [選項分析] 選項是四個動詞。achieve表示“達到,完成”;undo表示“取消,解開”;maintain表示“維持,繼續,維修”;disregard表示“忽視,不尊重”。根據句意,“這一差距聽起來很小,但要想……這很小的分差所帶來的影響,應試者就需要在GMAT考試中比實際……多考取30分才行。”很顯然,此處應該選填一個表示“消除”影響的動詞,所以[B]undo是答案,其余三個均與原文不符。

            20. [標準答案] [ C]

            [考點分析] 上下文語義題。

            [選項分析] promising意為“有希望的,有前途的”;possible意為“可能的”;necessary意為“必需的”;helpful意為“有幫助的,有益的”。根據句子結構,than作關系代詞引導定語從句,先行詞為GMAT points,所選詞修飾points。句子把兩種分數進行比較。一種是面試分數不受影響時,考生成功入學,GMAT“必需的”分數。另一種是面試分數受到不公正影響時,考生要成功入學,GMAT 需要的分數。后者比前者高30分。所以答案是[C]necessary,而不能是promising,possible或helpful。實際上more than necessary是一個常用結構,意為“超過實際需要的”。

            參考譯文

            總的來說,人們在做個人決定時,并不擅長考慮背景信息。乍一看,這似乎是一種優勢,它賦予人們不受外界因素影響而做判斷的能力。但是,Simonsohn博士推測,缺乏考慮大局的能力,會導致決策者受其日常所接觸信息的影響而形成偏見。例如,他這樣推理,如果一個法官害怕(別人說他)對犯罪太心慈手軟,而且他在那天已經對五、六個被告做出緩刑判決,那么他更可能會判接下來的人入獄。

            為了驗證這種想法,他開始關注大學招生程序。理論上講,申請人的成功不應該依賴于同一天里隨機抽取的其他面試者,但是Simonsohn博士懷疑事實并非如此。

            他研究了由31位招生人員主考的9323位MBA考生的面試結果。經過考慮眾多因素,面試官將申請人劃分成1至5五個等級。然后,(他們)將這些分數與申請人的經企管理研究生入學考試(或稱GMAT)成績綜合起來,由此來決定他或她是否被錄取。GMAT是一種滿分為800分的標準化考試。

            Simonsohn博士發現,在每天的一連串面試者當中,如果前一個應試者的分數比其前的應試者的分數高出0.75個點或高出更多的話,那么下一個申請者的分數就會平均下降0.075個點。這一分差聽起來很小,但是要想抵消掉它所帶來的影響,應試者就要在GMAT考試中比實際所需要的分數再多出30分才行。

            Section Reading Comprehension

            Part A

            Text 1

            21.【標準答案】[B]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對文中具體信息的理解能力和對因果細節信息的分析能力,解題的關鍵在于把握定位段落的核心信息。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息Priestly和criticize定位到首段首句,去掉狀語和插入語,首句的主干信息為Priestly scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her. 意思為“Priestly責怪她那沒有魅力的助手,因為她的助手認為頂級時尚并沒有影響到她”。題干的criticizes對應文中的scolds,選項[B]insensitivity to fashion對應文中high fashion doesn’t affect her,是對原文首句的概括總結。所以[B]選項正確。[A]利用第二句中the bargain bin“廉價商品處理區”和the poor girl這些細節信息編造干擾。bargain 修飾的是bin,而不是skill。[C]正反混淆,“對頂級時尚癡迷”與原文含義相反。[D]曲解文意,原文首句中imagining是動詞的現在分詞形式,此處譯為“認為”,而選項中imagination為名詞“想象力”,變換了詞性,改變了詞義,與原文含義不符。所以[A][C][D]均可排除。

            22. 【標準答案】[D]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對文中人物觀點的把握能力和對細節信息的分析能力。解題的關鍵在于定位題干信息,并結合選項內容,準確理解原文內容。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息Cline,labels和consumers定位到第二段第四句,去掉兩個破折號之間的插入語,此句的主干信息為Those labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposal and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks,意思為“那些商標鼓勵有時尚意識的消費者把衣服視為一次性用品,并且每隔幾周更新衣櫥”。[D]是對該句的同義替換,題干的urge對應文中的encourage,選項中的garments對應文中wardrobe,shop for…frequently對應文中renew… every few weeks。所以[D]選項正確。[A]是根據第二段第三句中的Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory設置的干擾項。該句是說更快的周轉時間使得庫存浪費減少了,這還是說明人們購物更頻繁了,并不表明大眾品牌商標鼓勵人們“與不必要的浪費作斗爭”。故[A]與文意相悖。[B]正反混淆,大眾品牌商標會使得消費者身處于狂熱的時尚界,而不是使消費者脫離狂熱的時尚界。[C]曲解文意,利用第四句中although they don’t advertise that…設置無關干擾,文中并未提及“抵制廣告的影響”。所以[A][B][C]均可排除。

            23.【標準答案】[A]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生根據上下文或構詞知識推測生詞詞義的能力,解題的關鍵在于把握定位位置的上下文邏輯關系并關注文章的主線及感情色彩。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息定位到第二段首句。推測“indictment”的詞義需結合上下文語境,首句中Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”,可見“indictment”是Cline對待快速時尚的態度。所以根據該段末句中Cline argues這一關鍵點,理解末句含義便可推測出“indictment”的詞義。末句主要信息為“這些品牌擾亂了時尚周期,撼動了長期適應于季節性節奏的整個行業”。可見Cline所有的態度是反向的,批判的。[A]“指控,譴責”符合題意,所以選為答案。另外,根據構詞知識可知,indictment= in+dict+ment,其中的dict是常見詞根,意為“說”,ment為名詞詞尾,in-為表示否定或加強意義的前綴,所以可初步猜測為跟“說”有關的意思。選項中只有[A]有“說”的意思,而且accusation=ac+cus+ation意為“起訴,控告”。[B]正反混淆。[C]選項本身錯誤,議論文中的觀點態度必須是明確的,不能是漠不關心的。[D]也不符合語境。所以[B][C][D]均可排除。

            24.【標準答案】[D]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對核心信息的推理引申能力,解題的關鍵在于準確把握段落的中心句 。

            【選項分析】[A]項中vanity是關鍵詞,可定位在該段最后一句話。但是該選項中的比較內容在原文中未出現,所以明顯不對。(特別提醒考生:對于含有比較意義的選項一定要特別關注;一般來說,這種選項都不是正確答案)[B]項與該段的首句話內容“一些快時尚公司已經努力控制其對勞動力和環境的影響”明顯矛盾,所以不正確。[C]項又是一個比較句,要特別注意其比較的內容。盡管該段最后一句是個比較句,但其比較的對象是購物的可持續性,而不是選項中的“買不起的衣物”,所以該選項也不正確。很明顯,選項[D]是對該段最后一句話的正確理解。“人們只有買不起衣服時才會開始可持續性購物”,這充分說明價格對于可持續性購物的重要性,故正確選項為[D]。

            25.【標準答案】[C]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對文章總體結構的分析能力和對主旨要義的理解能力,解題的關鍵在于把握文章的行文思路和整體框架,通過篩選題目中的中心詞來確定文章主旨。

            【選項分析】由文章結構可知:首段舉例引入時尚主題。第二段引出文章主旨fast fashion并且指出了它對于時尚產業的破壞作用。第三四段通過數據和舉例進一步例證fast fashion的弊端。第五六段指出可以采取的解決辦法:人們往往只有在無法支付的情況下才會進行可持續性購買。可見fast-fashion為文章的中心詞,且作者的態度是批判性的。所以[C]選項正確。[A]無中生有,文中從未提及。[B]曲解文意,high-fashion是文章首段引入時尚主題的局部信息,不是全文論述的主旨。盡管mass-market出現過,但文章并未論述其秘密,所以[D]也不正確。故[A][B][D]均可排除。

            參考譯文

            在2006年上映的電影《穿Prada的女魔頭》中,由梅麗爾·斯特里普扮演的米蘭達·普利斯特里責備了她那沒有魅力的助手,是因為她的助手認為頂級時尚對她沒有影響。普利斯特里數落說,助手的深藍色毛衣經歷歲月的變遷從時尚秀場退化到百貨商店,進而淪落到廉價商品處理區。而在這里,可憐的女孩毫不猶豫地挑選了這件衣服。

            時尚行業這種自上而下的理念都非常過時,也與伊麗莎白·席琳歷時三年完成的《盛裝》一書中指責的“快速時尚”所描述的狂熱的世界不相符。在過去十年左右的時間里,技術進步已使Zara, H&M, 和Uniqlo這樣的大眾市場品牌能夠更迅速地應對潮流,更精準地預測需求。更快速的周轉意味著更少的庫存浪費,更頻繁的新品發布以及更多的利潤回收。那些商標促使對時尚敏感的消費者將服裝看作一次性用品—— 只洗一兩次就扔掉,雖然他們并沒有做這樣的廣告宣傳 ——并且每隔幾周更新衣櫥。席琳認為,通過以極低的價格提供時尚產品,這些品牌劫持了時尚圈,動搖了長期以來適應于季節周期的整個產業。

            當然,這場變革的受害者并不僅限于設計師。H&M品牌要想向世界各地2300多家分店供應價格為5.95美元的針織迷你裙,它必須依賴廉價的海外勞動力和大額訂單,這些訂單使得(服裝企業)過度消耗自然資源并且使用大量的有害化學制品。

            席琳認為:“《盛裝》是時尚界對于像Michael Pollan所著的《雜食者的困境》這樣的消費者維權暢銷書的一種回應。大批量生產的衣服像快餐一樣,滿足了饑餓和需求,卻是非耐用品,而且是種浪費。”她發現,美國人一年購買大約200億件衣服,平均每人64件,而且無論其花費多少,這樣的過量置衣會造成浪費。

            在《盛裝》的結尾,席琳介紹了她心目中的典范,一個名叫Sarah Kate Beaumont的布魯克林女人,她從2008年開始所有的衣服都自己制作,而且很漂亮。但是正如席琳首次提到的那樣,Beaumont花費了幾十年來完善她制作衣服的手藝,她的成功不是一蹴而就的。

            盡管一些快速時尚公司(包括H&M 和它的綠色Conscious Collection 系列)已經努力遏制它們對勞動力和環境造成的影響,但是席琳認為持續的變化只能通過消費者達成。她對無論是在食品行業還是能源領域支持可持續性的人士,提出了他們共同的理念。每個人都有虛榮心;人們往往只有在無法支付的情況下才會進行可持續性的購買。

            Text 2

            26.【標準答案】[B]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對細節信息的分析和理解能力。解題的關鍵在于定位題干信息,并結合選項內容,準確理解原文內容。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息“behavioural” ads可將答案定位在首段的第二、三句話。這兩句話指出,互聯網時代的行為廣告能瞄準目標顧客,減少被浪費掉的部分廣告經費,由此可知,選項[B]“降低廣告商的運營成本”是正確答案。[B]是對第二句話的同義替換,其中的lower對應文中be reduced,operational costs對應文中this fraction(half of all advertising budgets),選項用主動語態形式表達了原文的被動語態形式的句子。所以[B]項正確。[A][C][D]在原文中未提及,均可排除。

            27.【標準答案】[D]

            【考點分析】本題考查考生對文章中關鍵指代詞所指代信息的分析能力。解題的關鍵在于結合上下文來確定詞義。

            【選項分析】“The industry”所在句指出,the FTC和the DAA達成了共識:the industry要對DNT做出迅速回應,結合上下文語境可知,the industry指代前文出現的內容:Microsofts Internet Explorer and Apples Safari“微軟的IE瀏覽器和蘋果的游獵瀏覽器”以及Googles Chrome“谷歌的鉻黃瀏覽器”,也就是[D]表述的“網絡瀏覽器開發商”,所以[D]選項正確。[A]不是本段談論的核心內容;[B]和[C]在文中未提及,此三項均可排除。

            28.【標準答案】[C]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對文章細節信息和文中人物觀點的把握能力。解題的關鍵在于定位題干信息,并結合選項內容,準確理解原文內容。

            【選項分析】根據題干中的關鍵詞Bob Liodice,DNT和default可將答案定位在第五段的最后幾句話。Bob Liodice說,如果廣告商收集不到有關消費者偏好的信息(即題干所提的“將DNT設為默認”帶來的后果),那么這對于消費者來說將更為不利。[C]是對原文中的consumers will be worse off的同義互換,所以[C]是正確答案。[A]正反混淆,與第五段最后兩句所說的垃圾廣告不是減少而是增加相反。[B]與原文主題相矛盾,全文主要論述的就是DNT對于廣告業的可能影響。[D]曲解文意,第五段第二句說“出于人類本能,很多用戶都堅持使用默認選項”,這不能說“將DNT設為默認違背人性”。所以[A][B][D]均可排除。

            29.【標準答案】[A]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對文章細節信息的分析能力。解題的關鍵在于與原文信息一一核查,找出符合段落具體信息的正確選項。

            【選項分析】定位到第六段。本段末句提到some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway“有些廣告商會忽略"禁止跟蹤"信號,不管不顧地繼續追蹤用戶在線行為”,而設置“禁止追蹤”的初衷是為了保證人們的在線行為不被追蹤。由此可推知,"禁止跟蹤"可能不會達到預期的目的。所以[A]項正確。[B]正反混淆,第六段第一句提到“廣告商們會對此作何反應仍不清楚”,而不是廣告商愿意實施"禁止跟蹤"。[C]正反混淆,第六段末句提到“無法辨別消費者是否保留著微軟的默認設置”,而不是消費者不歡迎“禁止跟蹤”。[D]偷換概念,第二句Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking,即DNT不會迫使廣告商停止跟蹤,選項將文中stop tracking偷換為offer behavioural ads,并將原文的否定表達換成了肯定表達。所以[B][C][D]均可排除。

            30.【標準答案】[D]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對作者觀點態度的把握。態度題有兩種解法:整體分析法和具體定位法。前者是根據作者對文章主要內容的傾向性來做出綜合推斷,后者是根據某一段落或句子中的具體信息來確定。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息Brendon Lynch定位到文章末段最后兩句。Brendon Lynch在博客中寫道:“我們認為用戶應該有更大的話語權。”最后一句Could it really be that simple? “真的是這么簡單嗎?”體現了作者的態度,很顯然,作者對于微軟采取這一措施的動機表示質疑。所以[D]項正確。[A] [B][C]都不符合題意,均可排除。

            參考譯文

            老話說得好,所有的廣告預算有一半都打了水漂——問題是,沒有人知道到底是哪一半。在網絡時代,至少在理論上,這一部分可大幅度減少。通過觀察人們的在線搜索、點擊和評論,公司能夠向那些最有可能購買的顧客身上投放“行為”廣告。

            在過去的幾周內,一席爭吵已經體現出這樣精準的信息對于廣告商(和他們的軟件供應商)的價值。廣告商們應該試想人們愿意被追蹤并且被發送行為廣告嗎?或廣告商們是不是應該獲得明確的許可?

            2010年12月份,美國的聯邦貿易委員會提議將“禁止跟蹤”選項添加到網絡瀏覽器中,以便用戶能夠告訴廣告商們他們不想被追蹤。微軟的IE瀏覽器以及蘋果的游獵瀏覽器都有“禁止跟蹤”選項;今年,谷歌的鉻黃瀏覽器也將提供這一功能。2月份,聯邦貿易委員會與數字廣告聯盟達成共識:該行業應對“禁止跟蹤”的要求進行回應。

            5月31日,微軟引發了這場爭論。它聲稱將在隨公司Windows 8一起面市的IE10瀏覽器中,設置DNT為默認選項。

            廣告商們一陣恐慌。人性使然,大部分人堅持使用默認設置。現在很少有人會開啟DNT選項,但如果“追蹤”選項是關著的,它就會保持關閉狀態。數字廣告聯盟下的一個組織全美廣告商協會主席Bob Liodice說:“如果廣告行業不能收集消費者的偏好信息,那么這對于消費者來說將更為不利。”他還說:“人們收到的廣告不會減少,他們收到的是更沒有意義,更缺少針對性的廣告。”

            目前仍然不清楚廣告商會作何回應。盡管一些公司已經承諾會在收到DNT信號后停止追蹤,但是收到DNT信號的公司并沒有義務停止跟蹤。因為無法判斷用戶是真正反對“行為”廣告,還是沒有更改微軟提供的默認選項,所以有些廣告商會忽視DNT信號,繼續追蹤信息。

            同樣不清楚的是,為何微軟孤軍奮戰。畢竟微軟公司也有廣告業務,盡管該公司仍在研究如何對DNT請求做出回應,但卻聲稱會遵守DNT請求。如果微軟公司想要去激怒幾乎全靠廣告業務運營的谷歌的話,那么它選擇了一條間接的途徑:沒人保證默認的DNT將會成為行業規范。DNT似乎不會成為Windows 8的巨大賣點——盡管微軟之前以此為標準將旗下的其他產品與谷歌的相媲美。微軟的首席隱私官Brendon Lynch在博客中曾經這樣寫道:“我們相信消費者們應該有更多的控制權”。事情真能這么簡單嗎?

            Text 3

            31.【標準答案】[B]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對細節信息的分析能力,解題的關鍵在于挖掘出隱藏在定位段落中的因果邏輯關系。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息Our vision of the future和過去時的標志性短語used to 定位到第一段。第一句指出過去人們對未來的想象是積極的,第二句解釋其原因:科學和技術能治愈人類的一切疾病,給人們帶來圓滿的生活和無限的機遇。可見人們過去之所以對未來很樂觀是因為對科技是充滿信心的。[B]是該句的同義替換,所以[B]項正確。[A][D] 因果倒置,lives of fulfillment和opportunity實則是科技進步所產生的結果,并非造成我們對未來憧憬的原因。且[D]中的equal opportunity曲解了原文opportunity for all的意思,所以[A]和[D]均不正確。[C]不在定位的段落,是第二段的內容,對應的時間詞是Now,與題干中的used to矛盾,所以[C]可排除。

            32.【標準答案】[A]

            【考點分析】此題考查對細節信息的推理引申能力和區分論點論據的能力,解題的關鍵在于準確區分論點論據。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息The IUCN’s “Red List”定位到第三段第四句。該句中出現了專有名詞"Red List"和引用的"Red List"一書中的內容,可知第四句為論據,該論據是用以論證前面的論點的,即第三句:we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years “就算不能存續數十萬年,我們也有絕佳的機會能夠存續數萬年”。由此可知,人類是持續性物種。[A]是對第三句這一論點的概括總結,并且由論據本身“人類分布廣泛,適應能力強,數量正在增加,并且目前人類尚未遇到致整體數量減少的大威脅”也可推出[A]正確。[B] 是對threatened species的誤解,不是對環境的威脅,而是其本身是一種受威脅的物種。[C]過度夸大,與原文含義不符。[D]偷換概念,原文中misplaced修飾的是gloominess,而不是race。所以[B][C][D]均可排除。

            33.【標準答案】[D]

            【考點分析】 此題考查考生對段落主旨的把握和細節信息的分析能力,解題的關鍵在于將選項與原文信息進行一一比對,找出符合段落主旨的正確選項。

            【選項分析】定位到第五段,[A]曲解文意,該段最后一句中Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future“Arc是專門研究不遠的將來的一種新刊物”,而不是“Arc有助于限定未來學的研究范圍”。根據[B]項中的technology可將其定位在第二句,該句明確指出科技的演化及其帶來的社會后果是復雜的,所以最好把探索我們所能設想的眾多可能性的任務留給科幻作家和未來學家,整句話未提及solutions,也沒有提到social problem,所以[B]錯誤。[C]項中的science fiction雖在該段第二句有所提及,但并未提及人們對其的興趣,所以[C]不正確。根據[D]項中的immediate future可將其定位于該段首句,該句明確指出想象lengthy timescales要比想象immediate future容易,換言之,想象我們不遠的將來比較難。所以[D]項正確。

            34.【標準答案】[C]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對段落主旨的把握和細節信息的分析能力,解題的關鍵在于把握定位段落的核心信息。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息future of the mankind以及出題順序與段落順序基本保持一致的原則定位到最后兩段。第六段第一句轉折指出,從更遠的視角來看,竟然有相當多的事情是我們可以非常確定的。第二句闡明原因:過去是通向未來的關鍵(key,對應題干的crucial),我們現已識別出足夠多的形成地球和人類歷史的長期模式,以便有根據地預測我們的后代將來所處的環境。換言之,為了確保人類的將來,關鍵要吸取過去經驗。[C]是對第六段第二句的同義替換,所以[C]正確。[A]利用文中出現的explore,planet以及常識干擾,但文中從未提及勘探地球上豐富的資源。[B]將原文的adopt an optimistic view of our future偷換成adopt an optimistic view of the world,而且對確保未來不是crucial,排除該項。[D]曲解文意,第六段第二句shaping the history修飾long-term patterns,指的是形成地球和人類歷史的長期模式,而不是要抑制重塑歷史的雄心。所以[A][B][D]均可排除。

            35.【標準答案】[C]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對文章主旨的把握。解題的關鍵在于把握文章的結構和行文思路。

            【選項分析】文章主要圍繞對人類未來的預測而展開,在文末指出盡管人類的未來不完全美好,但我們有足夠的知識,能夠減少曾經威脅早期人類的諸多風險,改善我們后代的處境。可見作者對人類的未來的態度是積極的,所以[C]是答案。[A]與第六段首句話矛盾,該句指出把眼光放遠一點,有很多事情是我們能夠確定的,所以[A]不正確。[B][D]中都缺少文中重復出現的主題詞future,僅是文章中的局部信息,無法涵蓋全文主旨,所以均可排除。

            參考譯文

            直到幾十年前,我們對于未來的想象盡管不一致,但在很大程度上卻都是非常積極的。科學和技術能夠治愈人類所有疾病,給人們帶來圓滿的生活和無限的機遇。

            如今烏托邦一樣的理想社會已經過時了,因為我們更加深刻地認識到了所面臨的威脅,從行星相撞到流行性感冒,再到氣候變化。你甚至可能會傾向于認為人類的未來會變得渺茫。

            但是,這種悲觀情緒是不該有的。化石的記錄表明許多物種已經持續數百萬年---所以為什么我們不能呢?放眼人類在宇宙中的地位,很明顯,我們有絕佳的機會能夠存續數萬年,即使不是數十萬年。不妨看看國際自然保護聯盟IUCN 列出的受威脅物種的“紅色名單”中對于現代人的描述:現代人被列為最不受關注的物種,他們分布及其廣泛,適應能力強,目前數量正在增加,而且不存在造成其整體數量減少的重大威脅。

            所以我們遙遠的未來會怎樣呢?現在,越來越多的研究人員和組織正在認真思考這個問題。比如,恒今基金會就設計了一個幾千年以后仍然在計時的機械表作為它的旗艦項目。

            或許我們故意去設想時間跨度這么長的未來,而不去想像最近的將來,因為前者更容易。如今的技術變革和它對社會的影響非常復雜,或許最好把我們能夠想象的多種可能性留給科幻小說作家和未來學家去探索。這就是我們發起Arc的一個原因,它是一本專門研究不遠未來的全新刊物。

            但是從更遠的視角來看,竟然有相當多的事情是我們可以非常確定的。因為通常,過去是通向未來的關鍵,我們現已識別出足夠多的形成地球和人類歷史的長期模式,以便有根據地預測我們的后代將來所處的環境。

            這種對未來的長遠觀點使得我們對未來悲觀的看法更有可能轉瞬即逝。誠然,未來并不完全是美好的。但是,現在我們有足夠的知識,能夠減少威脅前人生存的危險因素并改善后人的命運。

            

            Text 4

            36.【標準答案】[C]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對文中因果細節信息的把握能力,解題的關鍵在于理解段落中的具體信息。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息Three provisions of Arizona’ plan及overturned定位到第二段第一句。該句指出了“州計劃的三項條款被推翻”這一結果。第二句和第三句論述了產生這一結果的原因:憲法規定僅華盛頓有權“建立統一的歸化條例”,而且聯邦法律高于各州法律,而亞利桑那州卻試圖制定與現存聯邦政策并行的州政策。由此可知,州計劃的三項條款被推翻就是因為它譖越了聯邦移民法的權威,[C]是答案。另外,根據第三段的最后一句話也可知,條款之所以被推翻是因為Arizona侵犯了聯邦的特權,再次驗證了[C]的正確性。[A]是原文單詞的零亂拼湊,原文從未提及聯邦警察。[B]偷換概念,擾亂的是聯邦政府和州之間的權利平衡,而不是各州之間的權利平衡。[D]擴大范圍,充其量也只與聯邦政策相沖突,原文并未提及是否與其他州政策相沖突。所以[A][B][D]均可排除。

            37.【標準答案】[C]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對段落人物觀點的把握能力,解題的關鍵在于區分文章作者觀點和段落人物觀點。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息 Justices定位到第四段首句:法官們說允許亞利桑那州警方核實移民的合法身份,換言之,法官們贊同各州在移民執法中的合法權力,所以[C]選項正確。第四段第二句提到“國會明確鼓勵各州工作人員與聯邦政府的同事們分享信息、通力合作”,但沒說最高法院的法官們對此的態度,[A]無從得知,排除。[B]答非所問,“各州獨立于聯邦移民法律”不是法官們同意的觀點。[D]曲解文意,第二句提及國會通常“設想”聯邦和州聯合執法,而不是國會“介入”移民執法。所以[A][B][D]均可排除。

            38.【標準答案】[D]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對段落細節信息的推理引申能力,解題的關鍵在于把握定位段落的具體信息。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息the Alien and Sedition Acts定位到第五段末句。state privileges going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts意思為“州特權可追溯到the Alien and Sedition Acts法案”,可見the Alien and Sedition Acts支持的是州的權利。[D] 是defense of state privileges的同義表達,所以[D]正確。[A]曲解文意,the Alien and Sedition Acts支持的是州的權利,不代表其違反憲法。[B]正反混淆,與文意相反。[C]中的supported一詞從無得知。所以[A][B][C]均可排除。

            39.【標準答案】[A]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對段落主旨要義的理解能力,解題的關鍵在于把握定位段落的主旨。

            【選項分析】根據題干已知信息the White House定位到第六段最后兩句:白宮聲稱亞利桑那州的法律條文嚴格遵守了聯邦法律法規,但是它制訂的這些法律與聯邦政府的執法優先權相沖突,實際上它能夠使任何它不同意的州法律不合法,也就是說,在執法權力上,應是聯邦政府優先。由此可見“白宮的執行力大于州執行力”,[A]是對第六段主旨的高度概括,所以[A]正確。[B]無中生有,原文并未提及白宮的執行力要依賴于各州的支持。[C]錯誤,因為第二段中明確指出,憲法規定,唯獨華盛頓(即聯邦政府或白宮)有權“建立統一的歸化條例”,所以白宮的權力是憲法賦予的,而并不是由聯邦法律所賦予的。文中并未提及白宮的執法權力很少與各州法律相沖突,選項[D] 屬于無中生有。所以[B][C][D]均可排除。

            40.【標準答案】[B]

            【考點分析】此題考查考生對文章主旨的把握和段落信息的推理引申能力,解題的關鍵在于把握文章的行文思路和文章的框架結構。

            【選項分析】選項一一甄別。 [A]過度推理,末段第二、三句:如果國會想阻止州政府使用自己的資源來核查移民身份的話,它是有權力的,但它并未這樣做。由此并不能推斷“移民問題通常由國會來裁定”。第四句指出,聯邦政府自恃擁有特權,在它與國會意見相左、不想執行國會希望在移民問題上實現聯邦政府與州政府合作的這個愿景時,它也不允許各州與聯邦政府一起移民執法。聯邦政府的做法顯然過于獨斷專行。第五句隨即指出,最高法院全票否決了聯邦政府的這種做法。由此可見,最高法院的大法官們是為了抑制聯邦政府的權力。選項[B] 是對原文的正確理解,其中check意為“抑制,遏制”,故答案為[B] 。[C]曲解文意,末句:每一個法官都反對政府的主張,并未提及“法官想要加強與國會間的相互協作”,所以 [C]可排除。末段首句:聯邦政府確實擁有某些特權,比如,對公民身份以及邊界的控制權。[D]選項是對該句的改寫,其中的The Administration同義替換the federal government, dominant同義替換exclusively。但是第二句But轉折指出國會對移民問題也有否決權,它也可以制約各州在移民問題上的行為,因此第二句對第一句聯邦政府的權力進行了否定,故[D]“政府在移民問題上具有支配權”錯誤。

            參考譯文

            周一,美最高法院以5票贊成3票反對的投票結果否決了亞利桑那州移民法的絕大部分條款,這是奧巴馬政府政策上的一次微弱勝利。然而,在更重要的憲法問題上,最高法院以全部8票否定了奧巴馬政府在打破聯邦權力與各州權力的平衡問題上所做的努力。

            在亞利桑那州與聯邦政府的這場較量中,最高法院的多數法官推翻了亞利桑州計劃中備受爭議的四項條款中的三條。它計劃讓州和地方警察來實施聯邦移民法。憲法規定,只有華盛頓才有權“建立統一的歸化條例”,而且聯邦法律高于各州法律。這些規定是無可爭議的。亞利桑那州卻試圖制定與現存聯邦政策并行的州政策。

            大法官安東尼·肯尼迪,連同首席法官約翰·羅伯特和法院的自由黨派人士認定州法律太過接近聯邦權威。在被推翻的條款中,美國國會故意“把持了(移民法案)這一領域的立法權(而又不作為)”,亞利桑那州據此才冒犯聯邦的特權。

            然而,法官們說亞利桑那的警察可以核查疑似非法移民者的身份。那是因為國會總是構想聯邦和州聯合執法,并且明確鼓勵州官員與聯邦同事互通信息并相互合作。

            三個持反對意見的法官中,法官塞繆爾·艾力圖和克萊倫斯·托馬斯一致認同憲法邏輯,但是對于究竟亞利桑那的哪一條法律與聯邦法律相沖突卻有不同的意見。唯一主要的反對者是法官安通尼·斯卡利亞,他提出對州特權給予更加強大的保障,這可追溯到《關于制止外國人反美及制止煽動言論的法律》。

            最高法院這項針對奧巴馬總統的8:0的反對裁決使得大法官塞繆爾·艾力圖在他的反對表決中將此描述為“令人震驚的對聯邦政府執政權力的維護”。白宮聲稱盡管州法律在條文上遵循了聯邦法律,但是亞利桑那州的法律卻與其執法優先權相沖突。事實上,白宮聲稱它能廢除任何不被其認可的、合法的州法律。

            一些權力的的確確只歸聯邦所有,比如國籍和邊界的控制權。但是如果國會想要阻止州政府使用自己的資源去核查移民者身份的話,它是可以做到的。但它從未這么做。實際上,政府在聲稱,因為它不想執行國會的移民愿景,所以各州也都不允許那樣做。最高法院的每位法官都義正言辭地否決了這一主張。

            Part B

            41.[標準答案][E]

            [考點分析] 復現結構+代詞指代關系定位

            [選項分析] 所填空位于段中,需根據前后句內容或上下文來確定。前句緊接首段社會科學的繁榮而筆鋒一轉,指出this enormous resource并沒有對如今的global challenges做出足夠的貢獻,包括climate change, security, sustainable development and health等。后句指出盡管人類已擁有消除饑餓所需要的農業技術手段,但仍有社會問題存在,這顯然是對首句的解釋性例證。綜合來看,可猜得所選項應該是對前句的解釋,其中可能會含有global challenges或其同義詞。對比選項,[D]中有global challenges,但論述的是解決問題的方法,與此處語境不符。而[E]選項中的These issues正好與global challenges同義,并且all have root causes in human behavior解釋了為什么說this enormous resource is not contributing enough to today’s global challenges。此外,[E]選項直接用for example提出案例:Stemming climate change,對應前面的一項全球挑戰climate change。因此[E]選項為正確答案。

            42.[標準答案][F]

            [考點分析]  上下文邏輯關系定位

            [選項分析]  所填空位于段首,應據其后的內容確定。空后的話是This is a shame,其中的this必定是指前句的內容,而且該內容會使人感到shame。而且,根據破折號后對其的進一步解釋可知,所填空的內容應該是社會科學界未能做好的一種情況。對比選項,只有[F ]選項明確指出many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems,其中的social scientists正好對應科學界,reluctant表明其消極態度,such problems則對應前段的the problems。所以,可確定[F]選項為正確答案。

            43.[標準答案][B]

            [考點分析] 復現結構定位

            [選項分析] 所填空位于段尾,應據其前文內容來確定。根據該段首句話可知,該段主要論述社會科學關注的是學科內問題,而對有影響力的外界課題關注較少。接下來便對此舉例論證,指出包括關鍵詞environmental changed 和 climate change 的論文數量迅速增長。由此可知,所填空應該是繼續講述此類論文的數量問題,且應該是指向首句后半句“關注較少”的內容。對比選項,只有[B]提及到論文數量問題,且指出“這些數量還是很小的”,與原文意思一致,而且還有keywords重現。由此可知,[B]選項是正確答案。

            44.[標準答案][G]

            [考點分析] 代詞指代關系定位

            [選項分析] 所填空位于段中,需根據前后句內容或上下文來確定。該空的前句,即該段首句,和后句中均含有the amount,且均指available funding,所以空中一定會出現the amount of funding或其同義語。對比選項,只有[B]和[G]提到數字。[B]直接說明the numbers are still small,這與空后面所說的an adequate amount相互矛盾,故排除[B]。[G]選項national spending …varied from around 4% to 25%符合空中所要求的內容,既有the amount,也有available funding的內容,所以[G]是正確答案。

            45.[標準答案][C]

            [考點分析] 復現結構定位+代詞指代關系定位

            [選項分析] 所填空位于段中,需根據前后句內容或上下文來確定。所填空的前句是說,歐盟框架基金計劃取消面向社會科學家的基金項目的目的不是為了忽略社會科學家,而是complete opposite。所以,接下來應該是論述其真正的目的。所填空之后的代詞that指代所填內容,且該內容should create more collaborative endeavors。對比選項,[C]中的the idea is to…既與空格前The intention is not to…的結構相呼應,而且integrate their work with也與空后的collaborative endeavors相對應,所以[C]應該是答案。此外,[C]中的health and demographic change, food security, ...and secure societies也與空格后文中的global problems形成對應,屬于上義下現。所以,[C]是答案。

            參考譯文

            社會科學正在蓬勃發展。2005年以來,全世界各領域的社科專家已達近50萬名,其工作領域遍及整個學術界。根據2010年度世界社會科學報告,自2000年以來,全球社科學生的數量以每年11%的速度遞增。

            然而,如此巨大的資源并未對當今的全球難題做出應有的貢獻,包括氣候變化、安全、可持續發展和健康等。[41] 這些問題都有人類行為的根源,均需進行行為變革、社會創新和科技進步。例如,阻止氣候變化事關變革消費模式、促進稅收接納以及發展清潔能源。[E]人類已擁有消除饑餓所需要的農業技術手段,從基因工程農作物到人造肥料。同樣地,這里也有社會問題:食物、財富和業績的組織和分配。

            [42]盡管存在這些因素,但許多社會科學家似乎并不愿意處理此類問題。在歐洲,有一項削減社會科學研究專項基金并將其整合到可持續發展跨領域課題中的提案,有些社會科學家卻對此竭力反對。[F] 這是一種恥辱 —— 社會科學界應該抓住此機會,提高其在現實世界中的影響力。重釋著名社會學家約瑟夫·熊彼特的話:沒有創造性的破壞,就沒有徹底的革新。

            如今,社會科學主要關注的是學科問題和學科內的學術辯論,而不是有外界影響力的課題。有分析表明,自2004年來,含有“環境改變”和“氣候變化”關鍵詞的論文急速增加。[43] 然而,(這些論文)的數量仍然很少:在2010年全球發表的10萬篇社會科學論文中,僅有約1,600篇包括了這些關鍵詞之一。[B]

            當社會科學家著手處理實際問題時,其眼界往往局限在當地。例如,比利時主要對貧困給其帶來的影響感興趣。社會科學界的工作對知識的總體積累有多大貢獻,這一點仍值得懷疑。

            問題并不一定在于可用資金的數額。[44] 在20世紀90年代末期,各國在社會科學和人文學科上的支出占所有研究發展基金的比重從4%到25%不等,包括政府基金、高等教育基金、非盈利基金和公司型基金。在歐洲大多數國家中,這個數字是15%左右。[G]只要使用方向正確,這筆金額就足夠了。在如今的經濟形勢下,抱怨資金不足的社會科學家不應該期待更多。

            關鍵在于更好地引導這些基金。歐盟框架基金項目長期以來一直有專門面向社會科學家的基金項目。今年,有人提議改變這個體系:展望2020是一個將于2014年頒布的新計劃,其中將不包括這個基金項目。這一提議遭到了社會科學家的抗議。但是其目的并不是要忽視社會科學,而是恰恰相反。[45]其立意在于促使社會科學家把自己的工作融入到其他領域中,包括健康和人口變化、食品安全、海洋研究和生態經濟、清潔高效能源以及包容、創新、安全的社會。[C]這將會促成更多的合作性努力,為旨在解決全球難題的發展項目提供幫助。

            Part C  Translation

            46.【譯文總結】然而,人們在觀看那些無家可歸者所創建的花園的照片時,會感到深深的震撼。雖然這些花園風格迥異,卻在裝飾和創造性表達之外透露出了其他多種基本的人類訴求。

            47. 【譯文總結】無論地方多么簡陋,尋求一片靜謐的圣土是人類特有的需求,而動物需要的則僅僅是避難棲息之所。

            48.【譯文總結】無家可歸者的花園實際上是無家可歸的,卻給城市帶來一種以前沒有的或者并非如此明顯的環境形式。

            49.【譯文總結】我們大多數人會陷入精神萎靡的狀態,并常常將此歸咎為一些心理原因,直到某天我們發現自己置身在一座花園之中,煩悶如變魔術般消除殆盡。

            50.【譯文總結】即使“花園”一詞的使用在某種意義上有些隨性,但正是這種對自然的或含蓄或明確的表達,證明了用其來描述這些人造建筑是完全合乎情理的。

            參考譯文

            據推測,花園的產生源于建造者個人的一種基本需求: 創造性表現的需要。毫無疑問,花園表達了一種創造、表現、使用和美化非現實的欲望,而自我表現則是人類的一種基本欲望。46 然而,人們在觀看那些無家可歸者所創建的花園的照片時,會感到深深的震撼。雖然這些花園風格迥異,卻在裝飾和創造性之外透露出了其他多種基本的人類訴求。

            其訴求之一與動蕩中謀求平靜的欲望密切相關,借用T.S.Eliot的話就是“紛繁世界中的一片靜土”。 47 無論地方多么簡陋,尋求一片靜謐的圣土是人類特有的需求,而動物需要的則僅僅是避難棲息之所。這種區別示如此的明顯,以至于在棲息之所缺乏的地方,靜土變得更為迫切需要。平靜的心態是可以通過構建個人與其所處環境的關系而實現的。48 無家可歸者的花園實際上是無家可歸的,卻給城市帶來一種以前沒有的或者并非如此明顯的環境形式。這樣,他們給不會言語的環境帶來部分寧靜,并在其中表明了自己的立場。

            這些花園所表達或源起的另一種訴求或需要是其所固有的,但我們卻幾乎從未意識到其對我們的持久要求。當我們失去綠色、植物和樹木時, 49 我們大多數人會陷入精神萎靡的狀態,并常常將此歸咎為一些心理原因,直到某天我們發現自己置身在一座花園之中,煩悶如變魔術般消除殆盡。在紐約市許多無家可歸者的花園中,真正的植物栽培是不可行的,但是即便如此,表達嘗試材料運用、顏色組合、小水池、花瓣、樹葉以及動物標本的作品隨處可見。從某種基本層面上而言,這里展出的各種奇幻元素看來都來自自然界。50 即使“花園”一詞的使用在某種意義上有些隨性,但正是這種對自然的或含蓄或明確的表達,證明了用其來描述這些人造建筑是完全合乎情理的。從中,我們可以看到以離奇的具象派形式呈現出的生物自衛本能 —— 一種與非人類進行聯系的渴望。

            Section III Writing

            Part A

            參考范文:

            Dear professor,

            I am the chairman of the Students’ of Foreign Language Department in Peking University. We plan to hold an English speech contest and I am writing to ask whether you can honor us to be a judge for the competition.

            The contest will be held in Room 201, Teaching Building No. 3 on next Sunday, January 12, 2013. It will begin at 6:30 and may last for 3 hours. Participants are excellent students fluent in spoken English from different majors in our university. Judges to be invited include another three professors and language experts who are very familiar to you.

            We would be greatly honored if you can show your presence and provide us with your valuable comments. Please contact us at 1234567 if you can come.

            Yours sincerely,

            Li Ming

            Part B

            參考范文

            Recently, there has been a growing concern among the public over the topic of the choice after graduation. As is described in the picture, a group of graduates are facing various roads to go, such as searching for jobs, pursuing further study, going abroad and becoming entrepreneurs. The picture intends to convey us that, as adults, college graduates have to make their own decisions about future life.

            After graduation, college students should choose future life based on their own realities and dreams. For those, who are eager to become economically independent and to put practice what they have learned in college, taking a job or doing poineering work may be satisfying and rewarding. Getting established as a bread-winner after graduation is their main desire. By contrast, others who want to take advantage of the favorable conditions in college, however, ought to try to enroll in graduate programs inside or outside. For them, a Master's degree or even a Doctoral degree represents a much more ambitious goal than a bachelor's degree, because they cherish lifetime success and interest more in academic achievements than money.

            It is sensible that we should take a rational attitude towards the decisive choice. For the part of my own, getting a higher degree abroad has long been my dream. I’m a strong believer that one should do more research and learn more while he or she is still young.

            參考譯文

            近來,大家越發為畢業選擇的話題擔憂起來。正如圖片中所描述的,一群畢業生正面臨各種道路要走,比如找工作、繼續升學、出國、創業等。這幅畫旨在告訴我們,作為成年人,大學畢業生必須自己決定對未來生活的選擇。

            畢業后,大學生應根據自身實際情況和夢想來選擇未來的生活。對于那些渴望經濟獨立、實踐所學的人來來說,找一份工作或自我創業可能是就就期盼而頗有裨益的選擇。畢業后找到一份滿意的工作是他們的重要理想。但是,相比之下,那些想利用學校有利條件的人,則應該努力考取校內外的研究生。對他們來說,與本科學位相比,碩士學位甚至博士學位意味著更雄心勃勃的目標,因為他們把學術成就而不是金錢視為終生的成功和興趣所在。

            我們應該以理性的態度明智地做出果斷選擇。就我自己而言,在國外獲得更高的學位一直是我的夢想。我堅信,人應該趁自己年輕時多做研究、多加學習。

          【責任編輯:李碩】

          相關閱讀

            2013年考研英語一
          熱門課程 聯考 政治 英語 專業課

          猜你需要的課程

          考研考前特訓營
          授課方式 :面授
          簡介:半封閉式管理+貼心的教學服務+TOP教學體系

          在線咨詢了解詳情

          線上樂學班
          授課方式: 線上面授相結合
          簡介:個性化定制,管家式服務,讓你考研工作兩不誤

          在線咨詢了解詳情

          樂學周末面授班
          授課方式 : 線上面授結合
          簡介:專為大三在校生打造:線上網絡課程+線下集體面授

          在線咨詢了解詳情

          聯考全程加強班
          課時 : 248
          課程內容:2019經濟類聯考綜合全程加強班

          ¥799.00在線咨詢報名入口

          聯考全程班
          課時 : 230
          課程內容:2019經濟類聯考綜合全程班

          ¥789.00在線咨詢報名入口

          數三全程加強班
          課時 : 213
          課程內容:2019考研數學三全程加強班

          ¥799.00在線咨詢報名入口

          全程加強班
          課時 : 146
          課程內容:2019考研政治全程精講班

          ¥799.00在線咨詢報名入口

          基礎精講班
          課時 : 36
          課程內容:2019考研政治基礎精講班

          ¥199.00在線咨詢報名入口

          馬原基礎精講
          課時 : 16
          課程內容:2019考研政治馬原基礎知識精講班

          ¥149.00在線咨詢報名入口

          英二全程加強班
          課時 : 240
          課程內容:2019考研英語二全程加強班

          ¥799.00在線咨詢報名入口

          英二全程班
          課時 : 222
          課程內容:2019考研英語二全程班

          ¥789.00在線咨詢報名入口

          英一全程加強班
          課時 : 240
          課程內容:2019考研英語一全程加強班

          ¥799.00在線咨詢報名入口

          金融學-黃達
          課時 : 56
          課程內容:系統講解黃達-金融學重難點內容及常考題型

          ¥880.00在線咨詢報名入口

          公司理財-羅斯
          課時 : 50
          課程內容:系統講解羅斯-公司理財重難點內容及常考題型

          ¥880.00在線咨詢報名入口

          金融碩士-全科精品班
          課時 : 52
          課程內容:全面備考金融碩士考研重難點內容及常考題型

          ¥3040.00在線咨詢報名入口


          熱點關注 

          精彩活動 

          考研工具 

          招考信息 

          院校動態| 招簡| 目錄| 大綱| 分數線| 報錄比

          復習備考 

          名校備考 復習指南 參考書目 成功經驗 歷年真題

          快速查詢 

          丁香六月月,婷婷开心